Students will learn how the dot product can be used to find the angle between two vectors. The formula is derived from

$$a \cdot b = \lvert a \rvert \lvert b \rvert \cos \theta$$Students will also learn three different formulas for projecting one vector onto another. Students should also practice applying all the formulas learned in this section. An excellent demonstration can be seen by watching this, then this. An additional example of projecting one vector onto another can be seen here.