Students will learn how to add and subtract within 5, to solve both word problems and mathematical problems. Addition problems, both word problems and mathematical problems, will include finding the sum, or either addend. Likewise, subtraction problems will include finding the difference, the minuend, or the subtrahend. Students will learn how to use at least one of the following manipulatives, to help them add and subtract: fingers, one color counters, Unifix cubes, the unit cubes of base ten blocks, the 1 tiles of algebra manipulatives, Cuisenaire rods. Students will also learn how to use at least one visual method for adding and subtracting. Methods include adding and subtracting with ten frames, by counting forwards or backwards on a number line, or by counting forwards or backwards on a hundred chart. After adding and subtracting using concrete and pictorial methods, students will have likely memorized most addition and subtraction facts. From here, a bit more practice, and students will be able to add and subtract mentally.

K.OA.A.5: Fluently add and subtract within 5.