Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations. Include groups with up to ten objects.
Add and subtract with objects. Fingers, Unifix cubes, etc. Then move on to adding and subtracting with pictures. Identify mistakes in representation. If given 2 + 3 and a drawing of 1 + 3, students should be able to identify the mistake in both ways. For example, given the Unifix cubes *|***, Becky said it represents 2 + 3. Is she correct? Going the other way, Becky was told to represent 2 + 3, so Becky made *|*** with Unifix cubes. Is she correct?
Notes: One goal of kinder addition is to have them move between 2 + 3, the representation of 2 + 3 with Unifix cubes, the representation of 2 + 3 with a drawing, perhaps by drawing circles, and word problems, such as two wolves were howling, three more joined them, how many wolves are now howling?